In the present work, linear aliphatic polycarbonates with different structures were firstly synthesized via classic two-step polycondensation of diols and eco-friendly dimethyl carbonate (DMC) using organo-catalysts. Based on these investigation results, a novel one-pot method to obtain linear and hyperbranched polycarbonates under relatively mild polymerization conditions was developed in the second part. Different from other works using toxic phosgene based carbonates to obtain hyperbranched polycarbonates, eco-friendly DMC was used in this work.The use of renewable feedstock, such as vegetable oils, instead of petroleum in material science has drawn great attention in recent years. Trifunctional monomers, triols, trialdehydes and tricarboxylic acids, were successfully obtained from soybean oil and castor oil via ozonolysis process with high purity. Using these monomers, a variety of vegetable oil based hyperbranched polymers, such as hyperbranched polycarbonate (HBPC), polyester (HBPE), polyacetal (HBPA) and polyurethane (HBPU), were successfully synthesized.The resulting linear and hyperbranched aliphatic polycarbonates were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as well as ESI-ToF-mass spectrometry. Moreover, the hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation for linear and hyperbranched polycarbonates were evaluated under various conditions. All HBPsin this work have potential applications for preparation of biodegradable cross-linked materials.