The aim of this work was the fabrication of zinc oxide (ZnO)-based photonic crystal (PhC) membranes with tailored optical properties that can enhance the spontaneous emission near the electronic band edge of ZnO. These structures provide a 3D light confinement due to a refractive index contrast in the vertical direction and a photonic bandgap (PBG) due to a periodic modulation of the refractive index in the lateral direction.For the best possible quality, the ZnO layers are grown by means of plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy.  Here, a dry etching process was developed, which allows a selective etching of the Si substrate. To achieve the highest possible emission energy from photoluminescence (PL), the quality of the ZnO layer was also increased by optimizing the growth process on the amorphous silicon dioxide, which significantly reduced the defect luminescence in the PL spectrum.The structuring is performed by high-resolution electron beam lithography followed by reactive ion etching, which leads to an anisotropic structure transfer due to optimized process parameters and suitable hard masks.The optical characterizations by PL spectroscopy show a quality factor  of Q = 472 . A tailored UV emission was achieved, which, in addition to fine shifts of the main emission (10 meV), also shows an increased spontaneous emission by a factor of 5.3 close to the electronic bandgap. Overall, this work provides a solid basis for the future use of ZnO-based PhC membranes as NIR-driven UV sources in integrated optical circuits.