The aim of this work was the synthesis of ordered carbon-based nanomaterials and nanocomposites based on a self-organization and replication processes. These materials can be utilized as electrodes in lithium-ion batteries and in sorption experiments. Starting from ordered mesoporous carbon materials with bimodal pore size distribution, synthesis concepts were developed for a selective surface functionalization and the deposition of a variety of guest species. The resulting composite materials cannot be obtained by conventional synthetic methods.Using the carbon-based composite materials with a selectively deposited guest species, electrodes for lithium-ion batteries were fabricated and electrochemically characterized. They show high specific capacities at the beginning of the measurements. The loading of the guest species shows a critical impact on the capacity and cycling stability. Beside the synthesis of novel composite materials this work also deals with the selective surface functionalization in bimodal porous carbon. Therefore it was necessary to develop an advanced procedure of functionalizing both pore systems, independently from each other. The resulting materials can be used as model systems for sorption experiments as well as for electrodes in lithium-ion batteries.In addition to of the discussed synthetic work, different experimental techniques were developed, extended or applied. For instance, a measurement was developed to determine the apparent density with a typical volumetric physisorption device.Beside the development of synthetic strategies for novel nanocomposites, a measurement system and an electrochemical cell was developed to measure specific capacities of synthesized materials.