As a result of the fact, that todays integrated circuits have smaller features sizes, higher frequencies and are more energy efficient, weak spots can occur in the system. These weak spots can be undetected by the production test, but during system operation they can lead to hard failures, because of increasing susceptibility to intrinsic and external disturbances or aging effects. This early system breakdown is called „early-life failure“ and cannot be detected by a standard test without any adjustments. Indicators of early-life failures could be intermittent faults and also small delay defects. In this thesis a built-in self-test is presented, which characterizes faulty behavior to detect weak spots and avoid early-life failures, especially caused by intermittent faults or small delay defects, with low hardware and time overhead by using a standard test set. In a first step, the test procedure can distinguish between permanent and non-permanent faults. After that, a diagnosis process and Bayesian reasoning implement the classification of the non-permanent faults. With this procedure the product quality can be increased without additional yield loss. Furthermore a Faster-than-at-Speed-Test (FAST) will be introduced, which allows detecting SDDs in a built-in self-test environment without any changes in the ATPG flow.