In this dissertation I combine a statistical method, survival analysis, which is still relatively new to the field of organizational theory, with matters relating to the determinants of promotion and relegation as measures of athletic success. My results answer the following questions: Beyond pure financial power, what factors determine a club's probability of relegation in professional soccer? Do the determinants of promotion and relegation differ between various countries in Europe? Looking at leagues with relegation and promotion, do the same factors have an impact on promotion and relegation? So far, only a limited amount of research has been dedicated to analyzing promotion and relegation systems in general, and specifically to factors that are responsible for teams being promoted or relegated. My dissertation aims at filling this gap by analyzing the underlying factors using a comprehensive dataset for the empirical analyses in this work. In the following four chapters I discuss determinants of promotion and relegation in professional soccer leagues in Europe. In comparison to earlier research, I focus on longer time periods, a broader geographical coverage, and a broader range of variables. All of my estimations in the following chapters are based on at least forty-four seasons per league, with a maximum of 110 seasons for the English Football League in chapter 4. My method of research in the following chapters is survival analysis (also known as event history or duration analysis) to identify the factors that determine the length of time until the occurrence of an event; in this case, the event is promotion or relegation of a club.