The binary surfactant system sodium dodecyl sulfate/water (SDS/D2O) was investigated from concentrations below the critical micellar concentration up to the phase transition into a hexagonal mesophase via proton NMR spectroscopy. In addition to the already known concentration dependent chemical shifts, a concentration dependency of the splitting of the alpha-CH2 group was found, which is attributed to changes of the chain conformation. A second surfactant system, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide/water, did not provide sufficiently resolved multipletts of the alpha-CH2 group, to investigate a concentration dependence of the J coupling.Furthermore, mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate, cetyl alcohol and water (SDS/CA/D2O) were investigated as a model of similar gel-forming systems, which are used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations. A series of samples containing a total amount of 3 wt. % SDS and CA at varying SDS/CA ratio was investigated. Gel samples are found for an alcohol amount higher than 2 wt. %. The samples were studied by 1H NMR, diffusion NMR and 13C solid state NMR spectroscopy, DSC, cryo-TEM, V-SANS, and SAXS. Moreover, the ageing process and the influence of sample preparation and alcohol chain length were studied. It was found, that the gel samples consist of a mixture of unilamellar and multilamellar vesicles.For the investigation of the influence of shear forces, a new proton rheo-NMR probe was built. The construction of the coil and shear cell are described and first spectra obtained with the probe are shown.